Fakultas Hukum UPN "Veteran" Jakarta
Dr. Ahmad Ahsin Thohari, S.H., M.H. (Dosen Hukum Tata Negara Fakultas Hukum UPN "Veteran" Jakarta

Percakapan seputar kecerdasan buatan (AI) masih terus berlangsung dalam berbagai sudut pandang. Pro-kontra, kecemasan-harapan, dan optimisme-pesimisme adalah respons alamiah manusia ketika dihadapkan pada produk teknologi baru.

Namun, masih sedikit yang mengaitkan keberadaan AI itu dengan hak asasi manusia (HAM). Padahal, seiring paparan AI yang semakin jauh merasuki kehidupan manusia, ia juga dapat memengaruhi cara pandang manusia terhadap konsep HAM dengan pendekatan baru. Dalam antisipasi yang lebih jauh, kita dapat mengatakan bahwa keberadaan AI meskipun dapat memperkuat HAM tetapi pada saat yang sama juga menyimpan daya destruksi terhadap HAM. AI mengandung sisi positif sekaligus negatif dalam satu helaan napas.

Maka, saat ini diperlukan pemahaman AI yang lebih utuh karena ia memiliki risiko-risiko tertentu terhadap penghormatan, perlindungan, dan pemenuhan HAM. Pentingnya sudut pandang HAM dalam meneropong AI semata-mata untuk memastikan bahwa dengan AI semua orang dapat memperoleh kebebasan, kesetaraan, dan martabatnya, sesuatu yang menjadi tujuan Deklarasi Universal HAM (DUHAM) 1948.

Evolusi HAM

Pemahaman umat manusia atas HAM mengalami evolusi dari waktu ke waktu. Studi klasik hukum HAM, seperti dianjurkan Karel Vašák (1977), membagi HAM ke dalam 3 generasi. Generasi pertama adalah HAM yang bersifat sipil dan politik, karena berhubungan dengan kebebasan dan partisipasi dalam kehidupan politik. HAM ini berfungsi secara negatif untuk melindungi individu dari ekses-ekses negara. Hak untuk hidup, kesetaraan di depan hukum, kebebasan berbicara, dan kebebasan beragama adalah contohnya. HAM ini tercantum dalam Pasal 3-21 DUHAM.

Generasi kedua adalah HAM yang bersifat ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya (ekosob). HAM ini berfungsi secara positif agar negara aktif melakukan tindakan tertentu untuk memenuhinya. Hak atas kesehatan, pendidikan, perumahan, dan pekerjaan adalah contohnya. HAM ini tercantum dalam Pasal 22-28 DUHAM.

Generasi ketiga adalah HAM yang bersifat solidaritas, karena melampaui kerangka hak individu dan fokus pada konsep hak kolektif komunitas. Hak atas pembangunan berkelanjutan, perdamaian, dan lingkungan yang sehat adalah contohnya. HAM ini tidak disinggung secara eksplisit dalam DUHAM, namun diatur dalam Deklarasi Stockholm 1972 tentang Lingkungan Hidup Manusia, Deklarasi Rio 1992 tentang Lingkungan Hidup dan Pembangunan, dan beberapa soft law (aturan yang tidak mengikat namun mewakili praktik terbaik).

Hak-hak digital

Pada masanya, tiga generasi HAM di atas secara umum telah berhasil menyelamatkan umat manusia dari dampak negatif otoritarianisme pemerintah, ketidakadilan di bidang ekosob, dan ketidakadilan hak kolektif. Kini, tiga generasi HAM itu belum cukup cergas menjawab tantangan terbaru ketika dunia berhadapan dengan lompatan besar perkembangan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi termasuk di dalamnya adalah AI.

Tak ada yang memungkiri bahwa kehadiran AI membawa manfaat besar bagi umat manusia, termasuk bagi pemerintah dalam merumuskan kebijakan publik, membuat keputusan, mengalokasikan sumber daya dan sumber dana negara, serta memperbaiki komunikasi dalam berinteraksi dengan masyarakat. Namun, juga tak ada yang memungkiri bahwa AI mengandung mudarat seperti ancaman terhadap privasi dan keamanan, mendistorsi kualitas dunia pendidikan dan informasi publik, mengurangi lapangan kerja, kemungkinan terjadinya bias dan diskriminasi, kurangnya akuntabilitas dan transparansi, dan potensi penyalahgunaan.

Oleh karena itu, saat ini diperlukan generasi keempat HAM untuk melindungi kehidupan umat manusia ketika berhadapan dengan jenis produk teknologi baru semacam AI ini. Hingga kini konsep generasi keempat HAM masih dalam tahap pengkajian dan pengembangan serta belum ada konsensus. Namun, pada pokoknya ia menyasar pada HAM yang berkaitan dengan hak-hak digital (digital rights) yang di dalamnya terdapat hak untuk mengakses komputasi dan ruang digital secara setara (right to equally access computing and digital spaces) dan hak untuk menentukan nasib sendiri secara digital (right to digital self-determination).

Hak-hak digital muncul lantaran dunia digital memiliki ruang ontologis yang memiliki aturan main dan membentuk realitas sendiri yang sering kali tidak sebangun dengan realitas dunia analog. Bila HAM yang berhubungan dengan dunia analog cukup diatur dengan instrumen HAM dengan sudut pandang generasi HAM pertama, kedua, dan ketiga, maka HAM yang berhubungan dengan dunia digital tidak. Ia butuh instrumen HAM dengan sudut pandang baru, generasi keempat HAM.

Ketua Mahkamah Konstitusi Rusia Valery Zorkin pernah menyatakan bahwa digitalisasi kehidupan sosial telah menyebabkan munculnya hak digital khusus yang sebelumnya tidak dikenal. Maka, ia menyarankan agar dibuat undang-undang baru yang mengatur hubungan dunia dalam angka (baca: data) dan AI (Volodenkov dan Fedorchenko, 2022).

Lebih lanjut, Zorkin memahami hak-hak digital sebagai hak orang untuk mengakses, menggunakan, membuat, dan menerbitkan karya digital, hak untuk mengakses dan menggunakan komputer, perangkat elektronik lain, dan jaringan komunikasi khususnya ke internet. Termasuk di dalamnya adalah hak untuk berkomunikasi secara bebas dan mengungkapkan pendapat di web, hak atas bidang informasi pribadi yang tidak dapat diganggu gugat, termasuk hak atas kerahasiaan dan anonimitas dari informasi pribadinya yang sudah didigitalkan (Zorkin, 2018).

Sebagai generasi HAM baru, generasi keempat HAM ini masih butuh pendalaman baik yang menyangkut pengertian, ruang lingkup, teori, dan pendekatan. Perkembangan terbaru mengonfirmasi bahwa Parlemen Uni Eropa telah mengadopsi naskah undang-undang tentang AI pada 14 Juni 2023. Namun, naskah itu masih perlu proses lanjutan untuk menjadi undang-undang. Regulasi ini akan menjadi undang-undang AI komprehensif pertama di dunia dalam kaitannya dengan industri.

Jika undang-undang tentang AI ini telah berlaku, kemungkinan besar akan memengaruhi cara pandang masyarakat dunia terhadap eksistensi AI ini. Sehingga, ke depan ketika kita bicara HAM, maka ia tidak akan komprehensif tanpa menyertakan generasi keempat HAM di dalamnya.

Akankah fenomena yang terjadi di Parlemen Uni Eropa ini kelak akan menjadi game changer bagi keberterimaan generasi keempat HAM di seluruh dunia?

Jakarta, 19 Juli 2023
Penulis,

A Ahsin Thohari
Dosen Hukum Tata Negara Fakultas Hukum UPN “Veteran” Jakarta

Sumber: Media Indonesia, Kamis, 20 Juli 2023.
https://mediaindonesia.com/opini/597923/generasi-keempat-ham

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